44.16 A Narrative Review of 3D Printing in Cardiac Surgery

J. Wang1,4, J. Coles-Black1,4, G. Matalanis2, J. Chuen1,3,4  1The University Of Melbourne,Department Of Surgery,Melbourne, VICTORIA, Australia 2Austin Health,Department Of Cardiac Surgery,Melbourne, VICTORIA, Australia 3Austin Health,Department Of Vascular Surgery,Melbourne, VICTORIA, Australia 4Austin Health,3D Medical Printing Laboratory,Melbourne, VICTORIA, Australia

Introduction:  3D printing is a rapidly developing technology which has started to flourish in fields where the ability to visualise complex anatomy in novel ways may aid interventions. As such, the most prolific medical disciplines utilising 3D printing to date have been the surgical specialties. This paper reviews the published literature on 3D printing in the field of Cardiac Surgery.

Methods:  We performed a literature search using Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE and PubMed. The search terms used were “Printing, Three-Dimensional” AND “Cardiac Surgical Procedures”, “Three-Dimensional Printing” AND “Heart Surgery”, and “Three Dimensional Printing” AND “Cardiac Surgery” respectively. This resulted in 38 articles, which were independently read in full to identify relevant studies.

Results: Our literature search demonstrated a paucity of literature in the field of 3D printing in Cardiac Surgery, with merely 27 publications identified. The articles generally reported that 3D printed models provide better anatomical clarity beyond what can be achieved with imaging modalities only, which correlates with our experiences with this technology.  The vast majority of articles (89%) pertained to the utility of 3D printing in pre-surgical planning, and only four (15%) discussed the applications in trainee education.

Conclusion: There is enormous potential for growth in the field of 3D printing in Cardiac Surgery. We attest to the ease of adoption of this new technology, which has the potential to drastically change the way we practice medicine.